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Ubuntu: Everything you need to know about this Linux distribution

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Born in 2004 from a vision by Mark Shuttleworth, founder of Canonical Ltd, Ubuntu takes its name from an ancient Zulu word meaning "humanity to others". This African philosophy, centered on sharing and community, is perfectly reflected in the spirit of this free operating system, where everyone contributes and benefits collectively.

Ubuntu’s journey, from its beginnings as a simple Linux distribution to becoming one of the world’s most popular open-source platforms, is the embodiment of this open technological vision, accessible and shaped by its community.

What is Ubuntu?

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution, or rather an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It’s free, open-source software that millions of users can use, distribute and modify. Based on the Debian Linux distribution, Ubuntu was first released in 2004 by Canonical Ltd, a UK-based company dedicated to promoting the use of open-source software.

What are Ubuntu's features?

Renowned for its ease of use, stability and security, one of Ubuntu’s key features remains its user-friendly interface, which is designed to be easy to pick up, even for people unfamiliar with Linux.

Ubuntu’s default desktop environment is GNOME, a modern, intuitive interface that’s easy to navigate. However, Ubuntu also offers a range of other desktop environments, such as KDE Plasma, MATE and Xfce, so users can choose and customize the interface that best suits their needs.

What’s more, Ubuntu comes with a range of pre-installed software, including web browsers, email services, office productivity tools, media players and more.

This means you can get up and running quickly with the applications they need, without having to spend time installing additional software. However, there’s also an extensive application store, so you’re sure to find the best applications and solutions to boost your productivity!

As with any Linux operating system, security is a top priority. The operating system includes built-in tools to protect against viruses, malware and other security threats, including a firewall and security updates. But Ubuntu also focuses on user privacy, with options to encrypt data and protect sensitive information.

Overall, Ubuntu is a stable, powerful and versatile operating system that is popular with both home and business users. Its open-source nature means it can be customized and modified to meet specific needs, and its emphasis on security and stability make it a reliable choice for a wide range of applications.

What are the features?

Ubuntu, as a Linux distribution, has set itself apart with a unique combination of features that meet the needs of novice and expert users alike.

Ubuntu: Key Features
Image Based on Debian Ubuntu is built on the solid foundations of the Debian distribution, ensuring great stability and reliability. It also provides access to a vast repository of software packages.
Image Open-source and Free In line with the open-source philosophy, Ubuntu is entirely free. This means not only no cost but also the freedom to modify, redistribute, and even sell modified versions of the software.
Image Desktop Environment For a long time, Ubuntu used the Unity desktop environment, characterized by its side dock and Dash search. However, since version 17.10, Ubuntu has adopted GNOME, a modern, extensible, and highly customizable desktop environment.
Image Ubuntu "Flavours" Recognizing that each user has different needs, Ubuntu variants have been developed. These "flavours" include Xubuntu (with the XFCE environment), Lubuntu (with LXQt), Kubuntu (with KDE), and many others, thus offering a great diversity of choices.
Image Enhanced Security Thanks to its Linux kernel, Ubuntu is naturally resistant to many types of malware and viruses. Additionally, it benefits from regular package updates, reinforcing its security.
Image Snap and Flatpak Ubuntu introduced the concept of "Snap" packages, allowing applications to be installed in secure containers, facilitating updates and ensuring compatibility. Flatpak packages are also supported, offering another method of installing applications securely and in isolation.
Image Long-Term Support (LTS) Every two years, Ubuntu releases an LTS version. These versions are supported for five years (unlike standard versions with nine months of support), making them ideal for businesses or users seeking long-term stability.
Image Accessibility Ubuntu has always aimed to be accessible to the widest possible audience. This is reflected in its accessibility features, allowing people with disabilities to fully enjoy the Ubuntu experience.
Image Cloud and Server Integration Ubuntu is not just an operating system for desktops. It is widely adopted in server environments and provides solutions for cloud computing.

What are the different Ubuntu versions?

Ubuntu comes in different versions or “flavors” to meet specific user needs. Here are some of the most popular Ubuntu versions:

  • Ubuntu Desktop – the standard desktop edition that comes with the GNOME desktop environment.
  • Ubuntu Server – a lighter version designed for use as a server.
  • Ubuntu Mate – a version with the MATE desktop environment, popular for its classic, simple interface.
  • Kubuntu – a version with the KDE Plasma desktop environment, offering a modern, customizable interface.
  • Xubuntu – a version with the Xfce desktop environment, known for its lightness and speed.

Installing Ubuntu

1. Checking prerequisites

  • Compatibility: Although Ubuntu is compatible with most computers, we recommend you check the list of compatible hardware.
  • System requirements: For the best experience, make sure your computer has at least 2 GB RAM, 25 GB disk space, a dual-core processor and virtualization support.

2. ISO image recovery

  • Go to the official Ubuntu website and download the latest version.

3. Creating bootable media

  • Once you have a USB stick, use tools such as Rufus or balenaEtcher to create your installation media.

4. Start-up and installation

  • Insert the USB key and restart your computer
    Once you are in the Ubuntu menu, simply follow the steps below to proceed with the installation

5. Post-installation configuration

  • On first restart, configure your username, password and other preferences.

6. Welcome to Ubuntu!

  • Discover the environment, install your applications and update your software.

Ubuntu, an easy-to-use distribution

Ubuntu, as a Linux distribution, has proven its relevance and robustness over the years. Based on the solid foundations of Debian, it has adapted to technological developments while remaining true to its principles of accessibility, transparency and innovation.

Its widespread adoption in both personal and professional environments is testament to its reliability and performance.

For any individual or organization looking for an alternative to traditional operating systems, Ubuntu is a serious option to consider.


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